He was a central figure durante the political scene of the Italian Renaissance , per tumultuous period of plots, wars between city states and constantly shifting alliances.
Although he never considered himself a philosopher (and often overtly rejected philosophical inquiry as irrelevant ), many subsequent political philosophers have been influenced by his ideas. His name has since passed into common usage puro refer to any political move that is devious or cunning in nature, although this probably represents per more extreme view than Machiavelli actually took.
He is best known today for two main works, the well-known „The Prince” (a treatise on political realism and a rotaie on how a ruler can retain control over his subjects), and the „Discourses on Livy” (the most important rete di emittenti on republicanism per the early modern period).
Although he is sometimes presented as a model of Moral Nihilism, that is actually highly questionable as he was largely silent on moral matters and, if anything, he presented an alternative puro the ethical theories of his day, rather than an all-out rejection of all morality.
Machiavelli was born in Florence , Italy on 3 May 1469, the second affranchit of Bernardo di Niccol Machiavelli (a lawyer) and Bartolommea di Stefano Nelli . His family were believed preciso be descended from the old marquesses of Tuscany , and were probably quite wealthy.
He was soon promoted to Second Chancellor of the Republic of Florence, with responsibility for diplomatic negotiations and military matters
Little is known of his early life , but his education (possibly at the University of Florence ) left him with a thorough knowledge of the Latin and Italian classics , and he was trained as per man with great nobility and severe rigor by his father. He entered governmental service sopra Florence as a clerk and ambassador sopra 1494, the same year as Florence had restored the republic and expelled the ruling Medici family . Between 1499 and 1512, he undertook verso number of diplomatic missions to the courtaud of Louis XII of France, Ferdinand II of Aragn and the Papacy per Rome. During this time, he witnessed at first hand (and with great interest) the audacious but effective statebuilding methods of the soldier/churchman Cesare Borgia (1475 – 1507).
From 1503 esatto 1506, Machiavelli was responsible for the Florentine militia and the defense of the city (he distrusted mercenaries , preferring a citizen militia ). He had some early success, but durante 1512, the Medici (with the help of Pope Julius II and Spanish troops) defeated the Florentine force, and Machiavelli was removed from office, accused of conspiracy and arrested. After torture , he was eventually released and retired to his caldo at Sant’Andrea (sopra Percussina near Florence) and began writing the treatises that would ensure his place per the history of Political Philosophy, „Il Re” ( „The Prince” ) and „Discorsi riguardo a la davanti deca di Tito Livio” ( „Discourses on Livy” ).
Near the end of his life, and probably with the aid of well-connected friends whom he had been constantly badgering, Machiavelli began esatto return esatto the favor of the Medici family. From 1520 sicuro 1525, he worked on verso „History of Florence” , commissioned by Cardinal Giulio de’Medici (who later become Pope Clement VII ). However, before he could achieve a full rehabilitation , he died in San Casciano , just outside of Florence, on 21 June 1527. His resting place is unknown.
Machiavelli’s best known rete informatica, „Il Principe” ( „The Prince” ), was written mediante some haste per 1513 while con exile on his farm outside Florence, and was dedicated preciso Lorenzo de’Medici in the hope of regaining his stato sopra the Florentine numero di telefono eris Government. However, it was only formally published posthumously mediante 1532. Per it, he described the arts by which a Prince (or ruler) could retain control of his realm. Verso „new” prince has a much more difficult task than per hereditary prince, since he must stabilize his newfound power and build a structure that will endure, per task that requires the Prince onesto be publicly above reproach but privately may require him sicuro do immoral things con order esatto achieve his goals. He outlined his criteria for affecte cruel actions and pointed out the irony durante the fact that good can che razza di from evil actions .
Although „The Prince” did not dispense entirely with morality nor advocate wholesale selfishness or degeneracy , the Catholic Church nevertheless put the sistema on its index of prohibited books , and it was viewed very negatively by many Humanists, such as Erasmus. It ental break between Realism and Idealism. Although never directly stated in the book, „the end justifies the means” is often quoted as indicative of the Pragmatism or Instrumentalism that underlies Machiavelli’s philosophy. He also touched on totalitarian themes, arguing that the state is merely an instrument for the benefit of the ruler , who should have per niente qualms at using whatever means are at his disposal onesto keep the citizenry suppressed . Unlike Plato and Aristotle, though, Machiavelli was not looking esatto describe the ideal society , merely onesto present per guide esatto getting and preserving power and the situazione quo .
His other major contribution preciso political thought, the „Discorsi su la avanti deca di Tito Livio” ( „Discourses on Livy” ) was begun around 1516 and completed con 1518 or 1519. It was an exposition of the principles of republican rule , masquerading as per commentary on the rete informatica of the famous historian of the Roman Republic . It constitutes a series of lessons on how verso republic should be started and structured, including the concept of checks and balances , the strength of per tripartite structure , and the superiority of per republic over a principality or monarchy . If not the first, then it was certainly the most important work on republicanism in the early modern period.
Niccol di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) was an Italian philosopher, political theorist, diplomat, musician and writer of the Renaissance period
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